The AKC Breed Standard disqualifies Papillons, Phalenes over 12 inches; the European Papillon is only accepted a hair taller, and bigger, but not by much.
Look at it like this: the Papillon, Phalene , a 500 year old breed is originated from other Spaniels, which all are bigger dogs than these little toy spaniels.
So, one might get out of the best Papillons, Phalenes, a larger dog, than what the standard calls for. Papillons do carry those genes. The breeder of your Papi might have put together big/tall + big/tall. The chances that they produce big/tall are ,what do you think?
If you know the parents, grandparents of your Papillon, and he looks exactly like a Papillon, and has all the traits of a Papillon, then you do have a Papillon.